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Conditions you may be experiencing:
Bursitis (Swollen Cushion Sac Between Tissue and Hip Bone)
Bursae are small, fluid-filled, sacs that cushion the joints of the body allowing the tendons and muscles to glide over each other without friction or resistance. There are 160 bursae located around the major joints of the human body, including the shoulder, elbow, hip and knee. When a bursa becomes inflamed the condition is known as bursitis. Bursitis causes tenderness, pain and swelling in the affected area, and can lead to a restriction of movement for the patient.
Bursitis of the hip is the result of inflammation of either of the two bursae in the hip. The most common form of the condition is trochanteric bursitis, which is an irritation or inflammation of the bursa located at the outside lateral point of the hip (aka the greater trochanter). There is a second bursa located in the hip, called the iliopsoas bursa. Though less common, this can also become inflamed or irritated leading to pain in the groin area. Either condition is generally referred to as bursitis of the hip.
Causes or Bursitis
Bursitis can affect anyone, though it is more commonly found in women and middle-aged or elderly individuals. Bursitis of the hip is commonly caused by one or more of the following:
- Injury to the hip – injury is one of the more common causes of trochanteric bursitis, and can include falling onto the point of the hip or being struck by an object. Lying on one’s side for long periods can also cause bursitis of the hip.
- Repetitive stress or overuse – this can include, running, jumping, bicycling and climbing. Hip bursitis can also be the result of standing for long periods of time.
- Incorrect posture – posture related bursitis is often a side effect of scoliosis or arthritis of the lumbar spine.
- Abnormal stress on soft tissues in the hip – this can result from poorly positioned bones, as sometimes occurs with patients who have one leg longer than the other.
- Other diseases or pre-existing conditions – in some cases bursitis of the hip can be caused, or exacerbated, by other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or thyroid disease.
Symptoms of Bursitis
The symptoms most commonly associated with bursitis of the hip include:
- Pain at point of hip
- Pain extends to outside of thigh area
- Pain starts as sharp and intense and becomes achy and more spread out
- Pain is worse at night, when lying on affected hip, and when rising after sitting
- Pain may worsen with prolonged walking, stair climbing or squatting
Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI)
The hip is a ball-and-socket joint. The ball-shaped top of the thigh bone (femur) fits into the socket of the acetabulum (which forms part of the pelvis). Articular cartilage covers the surface of both the femur and acetabulum to create a smooth surface that allows that ball to move smoothly within the socket. When either of the bones in the hip are abnormally shaped, the condition is known as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The deformity of either or both of these bones prevents the smooth movement of the hip, causing the hip bones to rub together and potentially damaging the joint.
There are three types of femoroacetabular impingement:
Pincer impingement: a deformity of the rim of the socket
Cam impingement: a deformity of the ball at the top of the thigh bone (femur)
Combined impingement: deformity of both the ball and socket
Causes of Femoroacetabular Impingement
Femoroacetabular impingement typically presents in young adults and middle-aged patients, and it can have a variety of causes. Some patients may have been born with a structurally abnormal hip joint, while in others the deformity may have occurred over the course of their early childhood development. FAI can also be caused by athletic activities that involve repeatedly pushing the player’s legs beyond the normal range of motion, such as football, baseball, hockey and soccer. In some cases, femoroacetabular impingement may be the result of a traumatic injury to the hip or upper thigh.
Symptoms of Femoroacetabular Impingement
- Common cause of hip pain in young and middle-aged patients
- Pain in front of hip or groin
- Pain worse with activity and hip motion
- Typically caused by subtle bone abnormality in either femur (Cam lesion) or acetabulum (Pincer lesion)
- Impingement may lead to labral tears and/or early arthritis
Hip Dislocation (Leg Bone Out of Hip Bone Socket)
The hip is one of the largest weight-bearing joints in the human body. It is found where the thigh bone meets the pelvis to form a ball-and-socket joint. In a normal hip joint, the ball-shaped top of the thigh bone, or the Femoral head, fits into a cup-shaped socket in the pelvis called the Acetabulum. When the rounded top of the thigh bone slips, or is forced out, of the pelvic socket the result is a dislocated hip. Anyone can dislocate their hip joint as the result of a fall or trauma. However, older individuals tend to be at a higher risk, particularly if they suffer from mobility issues.
Causes of Hip Dislocation
A great deal of physical force is required to dislocate a hip joint, particularly in younger individuals. The most common causes of hip dislocation in otherwise healthy patients are automobile or motorcycle crashes, falls from significant heights, and industrial accidents. A dislocated hip can also be the result of sporting injuries. Because it takes such a large amount of physical force to cause a hip dislocation they are often accompanied by related injuries such as fractures to the pelvis, back, legs, and knees. Patients who have experienced a traumatic hip dislocation in the past are generally at a greater risk for suffering hip dislocations in the future.
Symptoms of Hip Dislocation
Hip dislocation is a serious medical emergency requiring immediate medical attention. The most common symptoms associated with a dislocated hip include:
- Extreme pain
- Inability to move leg
- Potential loss of feeling in foot or ankle area
- Hip may be bent and twisted in toward middle of body, or leg may be twisted out and away from middle of body
Hip Fracture (Crack or Break in Upper Thigh Bone)
A hip fracture is a break in the upper quarter of the thigh bone, or femur. It most commonly occurs closest to where the thigh bone meets, and fits into, the hip joint. Most hip fractures are the result of trauma, either a fall or a blow to the side of the hip. The severity of the break largely depends on the force of impact. Hip fractures are most common amongst the elderly (particularly women), but they can also occur in younger and more active individuals.
Causes of Hip Fracture
The majority of hip fractures occur in older patients, and are often the result of a fall. Typically, as people age their bones lose density and become more brittle. This puts older individuals at a greater risk of fracturing a hip, particularly if they also suffer from other age related medical conditions that can cause dizziness or problems with balance and mobility. Hip fractures in children and young adults are less common, but they can occur as the result of traumatic injury. The most common causes of hip fractures in younger individuals are automobile accidents and sports injuries.
Risk Factors that Contribute to Hip Fracture
A number of factors can contribute to a person’s increased risk for hip fractures. These include:
- Being female
- Suffering from Osteoporosis
- Lack of calcium and vitamin D necessary for strong bones
- Lack of exercise
- The long term use of certain medications, such as steroids for asthma or COPD
Symptoms of Hip Fracture
The most common symptoms associated with a hip fracture include:
- Pain over outer upper thigh or in groin
- Significant discomfort with any attempt to flex or rotate hip
- Break may be preceded by aching in groin or thigh area
- Injured leg may appear to be shorter than non-injured leg
Injured leg may feel more comfortable in a still position with foot and knee turned outward
The labrum is a ring of cartilage that runs along the outside rim of the socket of the hip joint. It acts as a seal to hold the ball at the top of the thigh bone secure within the socket of the hip, providing added cushioning and stability to the hip joint. A labral tear occurs when part of the labrum separates, or is pulled away from, the hip socket. Labral tears of the hip are most commonly associated with athletes and heavy laborers, and are typically the result of repetitive stress being placed upon the hip joint through extreme physical activities. However, labral tears can also be caused by trauma or underlying abnormalities of the hip or thigh bone.
Causes of a Labral Tear
A labral tear can sometimes be the result of a traumatic injury, such as a major fall or automobile accident. More commonly, however, labral tears are caused by a series of smaller repetitive injuries to the hip joint that gradually lead to damage of the labrum. Individuals who participate in certain athletic activities, such as hockey, figure skating and long distance running, are typically at a greater risk for labral tears of the hip. This is due to the heavy demands place on the hip joint during play, including repetitive twisting and extreme pivoting. In some instances, labral tears can also be caused by femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), or other structural abnormalities of the hip.
Symptoms of a Labral Tear
The most common symptoms or indications of a labral tear of the hip include:
• Common cause of pain in active patients
• Pain in front of hip or into groin and may radiate to side of hip and buttock
• Pain may be associated with clicking or snapping type sensation, or feeling that hip “locks”
• Often caused by femoroacetabular impingement (FAI)
Osteoarthritis (“Wear and Tear” Hip Arthritis)
Osteoarthritis, sometimes referred to as degenerative arthritis or “wear and tear” arthritis, is a chronic condition of the joints. While it can affect any joint, osteoarthritis most commonly occurs in the hips, knees, neck, and smaller joints of the fingers. It is estimated that nearly 27 million Americans suffer from some form of osteoarthritis.
In osteoarthritis of the hips, the cartilage that covers the ball-shaped top of the thigh bone (femur) and the hip socket begins to break down. This causes pain and swelling, and can impede the normal movement of the joint. As osteoarthritis worsens, the bone beneath these layers of cartilage may begin to thicken, often breaking down and producing bone spurs that can float around in the joint itself. The combination of the thinning of the cartilage and the degeneration of the hip bones can then lead to an inflammatory process in which proteins and enzymes develop that further damage the remaining cartilage. In the advanced stages of osteoarthritis of the hip, the cartilage wears away and the bones rub together causing greater damage to the joint and increased pain for the patient.
Causes of Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis most commonly affects patients over the age of 50, though it can occur in younger adults. It was once believed that osteoarthritis was simply the result of age and “wear and tear” on the body, but recent studies suggest that it is actually a disease of the joint. A variety of factors can increase a person’s risk for osteoarthritis including:
• Gender – osteoarthritis is more common, and more severe, in women.
• Obesity – being overweight has been tied to increased risk for osteoarthritis of the hips and knees.
• Joint Injuries – injuries to the joint can increase the risk for osteoarthritis, particularly among athletes and heavy laborers.
• Joint Abnormalities – osteoarthritis can be the result of abnormalities or diseases of the joint.
• Genetics – some patients may have a genetic predisposition for certain forms of osteoarthritis.
Symptoms of Osteoarthritis
The most common symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the hip include the following:
• Discomfort and stiffness in groin, buttock or thigh upon waking
• Pain flares with activity, improves with rest
• Pain increases over time until rest no longer helps
• Hip joint gets stiff and inflamed
• Bones spurs might build up at edges of joint
• Movement eventually becomes painful
• Possible inability to rotate, flex or extend hip
• Loss of motion can cause weakness or limping
Pelvis Fracture (Crack in the Pelvis)
The pelvis is a butterfly-shaped group of bones at the base of the spine. A pelvic fracture is a crack, or break, in one or more of these pelvic bones. Fractures of the pelvis are relatively uncommon, and are almost always the result of some type of traumatic event. While anyone can fracture a bone in their pelvis, adolescents and the elderly are generally at a greater risk.
There are two classifications of pelvic fractures:
Stable fractures – in which there is only one break in the pelvic ring and the bones remain in place. Stable fractures are often accompanied by limited bleeding
Unstable fractures – in which there are multiple breaks in the pelvic ring which do not align correctly. Unstable fractures are typically accompanied by moderate to severe bleeding
Causes of a Pelvis Fracture
The majority of pelvis fractures in otherwise healthy adults are the result of traumatic high-energy impact events. These would include being involved in a motorcycle or car accident, being hit by an automobile, or falling from a great height. In some cases, however, a pelvis fracture can be caused by a lower impact event. Older individuals, particularly those suffering from a weakening of the bones, can sometimes suffer a pelvic fracture as the result of a minor fall; and though uncommon, adolescents have been known to fracture one or more of their pelvic bones as the result of sporting injuries.
Symptoms of a Pelvis Fracture
The most common symptoms associated with a pelvic fracture include:
- Painful, often swollen and bruised pelvis
- Usually substantial bleeding
- Potential nerve injury and internal organ damage
- Some relief may be felt when hip or knee is bent in a specific position
Snapping Hip (Snapping Sensation in the Hip)
Snapping hip syndrome, often referred to as dancer’s hip, is a condition that primarily affects young adults (particularly athletes and dancers). Patients with snapping hip syndrome typically feel a snapping sensation, or hear a snapping sound, when they walk, rise from a sitting position, or swing their leg around. The majority of people with snapping hip syndrome suffer little, if any, lasting effects from the condition; though the sound and the sensation can be annoying. However, for athletes and dancers the condition can cause pain and weakness that may interfere with their physical performance.
Causes of Snapping Hip
Snapping hip is typically the result of tightness in the muscles or tendons that surround the hip. Younger athletes and dancers are generally more prone to snapping hip syndrome, because tightness in the muscle structures of the hip naturally accompanies adolescent growth spurts.
In the majority of cases, the “snapping” associated with snapping hip syndrome is the result of the movement of a muscle or tendon over a bony structure in the hip. This most commonly occurs at the outside of the hip, where a band of connective tissue (known as the iliotibial band) passes over the outer lateral point of the hip (aka the greater trochanter). When a person stands, the band is behind the lateral point of the hip. However, when the hip is bent the band slips over to the front of the greater trochanter, causing the snapping sensation and/or sound experienced by the patient.
Another, slightly less common, site of “snapping” is where the ball-shaped top of the thigh bone fits into the socket of the pelvis to form the hip joint. Here, the “snapping” occurs when the tendon that runs from the inside of the thigh bone up through the pelvis moves across the top of the thigh bone as the hip is bent or straightened.
Symptoms of Snapping Hip
The primary symptom associated with snapping hip syndrome is:
- A “snapping” feeling in your hip when you walk, get up from a chair, or swing your leg around